Roman Rule of the Land of the Bible--63 B.C.E. to 135 C. E.
Last updated: March 30, 2014

Egypt Israel Rome


Ptolemy XIII 51-47 BCE.  Younger brother and husband of Cleopatra VII; drowned in Nile

Ptolemy XIV 47-44 BCE.  Also younger brother of Cleopatra VII; poisoned by Cleopatra.




Rulers in Israel during the Roman Period

Hyrcanus II 63-40 BCE brother of Aristobulus II


Pompey initiates Roman rule of Judea in 63 BCE;  murdered in 48 by ministers of Ptolemy XIII, to whom he had fled from Julius Caesar

Cleopatra VII  She had liaison with Julius Caesar.  He died in 44 BCE

Her son with Caesar = Caesarion = Ptolemy XV 47-30 BCE; killed on orders of Octavian

Cleopatra and infant Caesarion

Cleopatra VII also had a liaison with Mark Antony, who died in 30.  They were defeated at Actium by Octavian Caesar.  Their children:  Alexander Helios, Cleopatra Selene, and Ptolemy Philadelphus




Left:  Cleopatra, top; Mark Antony, bottom
Right:  Cleopatra VII

30 BCE  Egypt becomes part of Roman Empire; Lasts until 395 CE

Cleopatra Selene and Juba II of Mauretania




Antigonus Mattathias 40-37 BCE. Son of Aristobulus II



Aristobulus III, last Hasmonean high priest, executed by Herod in 35. His sister was Mariamme, who married Herod the Great


Cleopatra VII Philopator

Ananel high priest 37-35, 35-30?


March 15, 44 BCE  Caesar killed by Brutus

  Kings of Judea

Herod the Great 37-4

Herod Archelaus 4 BCE--6 CE Judea, Samaria, and Idumea

Herod Antipas 4 BCE-39 CE Galilee and Perea Built Sepphoris and Tiberias; married Herodias

Herod Philip 4 BCE-34 CE Built Caesarea Philippi

Joseph Caiaphas high priest 18-36

Herod Agrippa I 37-44 CE grandson of  Herod the Great. Succeeded Herod Phillip


Herod Agrippa II Paul appeared before him Acts 25-26



Roman Governors/procurators


Coponius 6-9 CE

Marcus Ambivulus 9-12 CE

Annius Rufus 12-15 CE
Valerius Gratus 15-26 CE

PILATOCO.JPG (37109 bytes)

Pontius Pilate 26-36 CE


Pilate inscription from Caesarea


Marcellus 36-37 CE
Marullus 37-41 CE
Cuspius Fadus 44-46 CE (kills Theudas, an eschatological prophet)
Tiberius Julius Alexander 46-48 CE (nephew of Philo of Alexandria)
Ventidius Cumanus 48-52 CE
Antonius Felix 52-60 CE Acts 23:24

Coin of Antonius Felix

Porcius Festus 60-62
Albinus 62-64
Gessius Florus 64-66


Roman Emperors

Augustus ruled 30 BCE -14 CE




Tiberius 14-37 CE





Gaius Caligula 37-41 CE Assassinated
Claudius 41-54 CE




Nero 54-68 CE







Galba 68-69 CE




























Temple facade on coin during Second Revolt

First Jewish Revolt 66-70 CE

Sheqel of Israel    Year 2 of revolt

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To the redemption of Zion, year 4


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Judaea capta (Roman coin marking capture of Judea)















Second Jewish Revolt under Bar Kokhba 132-135 CE

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Eleazar the priest and Simon (bar Kokhba)

Jerusalem renamed: Aelia Capitolina

Vespasian 69-78 CE




Rome destroys Jerusalem 70 CE

Masada destroyed 73 CE

Titus 78-81 CE

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Arch of Titus showing Menorah from temple



Domitian 81-96 CE

Nerva 96-98 CE

Coin of Nerva

Trajan 98-117 CE

Hadrian 117-138 CE


hadrian.jpg (174867 bytes) 


Egypt Israel Rome