History of Israel

 

Matriarchs and Patriarchs  Exodus and Conquest Period of the Judges United Monarchy
Judah and Israel--Divided Kingdom Exile   Post-Exile Coins Elephantine  Alexander Samaritans Josephus

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Inscriptions of Israel/Palestine.
 

This site gives access to some important inscriptions that affect our understanding of Israel's history and culture.

General

Last updated: October 13, 2013

Ancient and Modern Scriptural Historiography. Edited by George J. Brooke and Thomas Römer. Review by Dan Pioske in Journal of Hebrew
        Scriptures.

Ancient Hebrew Research Center.
Ancient Israel: What Do We Know and How Do We Know It? By Lester L. Grabbe. Review by Brian B. Schmidt in Review of Biblical Literature
  Ancient Israel at War 853-586 BC. By Brad E. Kelle. Oxford: Osprey, 2007. Reviews by Ernst Axel Knauf and T. M. Lemos in Review of Biblical Literature.
Ancient Jewish History:  Jewish Virtual Library  A Division of the American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise
The Aramaeans:  Their Ancient History, Culture, Religion.  2000.  By Edward Lipinski.  Review by Scott B. Noegel in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
Bible Atlas Online by Access Foundation. For the most part old maps.
Bible History Online  A very rich site, with many good resources, but on the conservative/fundamentalist side.  The site promotes biblical inerrancy.  Despite this limitation, there is much to use/learn here.
Bible Maps.  An excellent collection.
Biblical History and Israel's Past. By Megan Bishop Moore and Brad E. Kelle. Review by John Van Seters in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.

Biblical History:  Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History.  Major site!  Essays on a wide variety of historical issues
A Biblical History of Israel.  By Ian Provan, V. Phillips Long, and Trember Longman.  Reviews by David Firth and Lester L. Grabbe in Review of Biblical Literature and by Ralph W. Klein in Currents in Theology and Mission.
Biblical Times:  Patriarchs through the Exile Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Biblical Times:  The Second Temple Period. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs
A Brief History of Ancient Israel.  2002.  By Victor H. Matthews.  Review by Deborah W. Rooke in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
California Institute for Ancient Studies  Chronological correlations with Egypt.  Represents a minority viewpoint (Velikovsky).  Use with caution, but there is much valuable material here.
Can a "History of Israel" be Written?  Ed. by Lester L. Grabbe.  Review by Gary N. Knoppers in Review of Biblical Literature.
Chronological Table of Israel's History.  By Tyler F. Williams
Chronology  An interesting reconstruction of biblical chronology from the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar to the time of Adam and Eve.  Its conclusions should be viewed with considerable caution.
The Chronology of the Kings of Israel and Judah. By Gershon Galil.  Review by Leslie McFall in Vetus Testamentum 49 (1999).
  Conservative Scholarship on the Move.  By Neils Peter Lemche
The Copenhagen Boomerang:  Deadly Weapon or the Retrieval of a Forgotten Truth.  By Jim West.  Bible and Interpretation Website.  April, 2005
The Critical Danes and History:  How to Avoid Getting Hit by the Boomerang from Copenhagen. Jens Bruun Kofoed.  Bible and Interpretation WebsiteApril, 2005
Dictionary of the Old Testament:  Historical Books.  Edited by Bill T. Arnold and H. G. M. Williamson.  Review by Bruce Power in Review of Biblical Literature. 
Did Moses Speak Attic?  Jewish Historiography and Scripture in the Hellenistic Period.  Ed. Lester L. Grabbe.  Review by Erich Gruen in Review of Biblical Literature.
Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History (Hebrew University in Jerusalem). With links to many other sites for historical information.
The Emergence of Israel in Ancient Palestine: Historical and anthropological Perspectives. By Emanuel Pfoh. Review by Jeremy Hutton in Review of Biblical Literature.
False Testament:  Archaeology Refutes the Bible's Claim to History.  By Daniel Lazare.  Harper's Magazine, March, 2002.
  Family and Society in Ancient Israel.  By Brian Schwimmer of University of Manitoba
From Eden to Exile: Unraveling Mysteries in the Bible. By Eric Cline. Review by Chad Spigel in Review of Biblical Literature.
The Function of Ancient Historiography in Biblical and Cognate Studies. Edited by Patricia A. Kirkpatrick and Timothy Goltz. Review by Ernst Axel Knauf in Review of Hebrew Literature.
"Has the Chronology of the Hebrew Kings been finally Settled?"  By Leslie McFall.  Themelios 17 (1991):6-11
Herodotus Project.  A new translation and photographs of sites mentioned in the history.
The Historian and the Bible. Essays in Honour of Lester L. Grabbe.  Edited by Philip R. Davies and Diana Vikander Edelman. Review by George C. Heider in Review of Biblical Literature.
Historical Photographs of the Land of Israel.
History and the Hebrew Bible: Studies in Ancient Israelite and Ancient Near Eastern Historiography. By Hans M. Barstad. Reviewed by Jeremy Hutton in Review of Biblical Literature.
Historiography:  Creating Understanding.  By Norman K. Gottwald.  Social-Scientific Studies of the Second Temple Period Section of SBL, San Antonio, 2004.
History and the Hebrew Bible: Studies in Ancient Israelite and Ancient Near Eastern Historiography. By Hans M. Barstad. Review by Dan Pioske in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
History--or Hallucination?  A review of Nadav Na'aman, The Past that Shapes the Present:  The Creation of Biblical Historiography in the Late First Temple Period and after the Downfall.  By Yairah Amit.
A History of Ancient Israel and Judah.  2nd ed. by J. Maxwell Miller and John H. Hayes.  Review by Kenton Sparks in Review of Biblical Literature.
Holy Land Photos.  193 sites and 1972 photos in database.
How to Do History?  Methodological Reflections by Niels Peter Lemche.  A lecture presented to the Social-Scientific Studies of the Second Temple Period Section of SBL, San Antonio, 2004.
Identifying Biblical Persons in Northwest Semitic Inscriptions of 1200-539 B.C.E.  By Lawrence J. Mykytiuk.  Reviews by Joseph Cathey and Paul Sanders in Review of Biblical Literature.
In Search of Pre-Exilic Israel.  Edited by John Day.  Reviews by Joseph Cathey and Lester Grabbe in Review of Biblical Literature.
Inscriptions from the Land of Israel.  Database from 500 BCE to 614 CE
  Internet History Sourcebooks:  Israel.  Paul Hallsall of Fordham University
Israel and Palestine, a Brief History.
Israel in Transition: From Late Bronze II to Iron IIa (c. 1250-850 B.C.E.). Vol 1. The Archaeology. Edited by Lester L. Grabbe. Review by Trent C. Butler in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
Israel in Transition 2: From Late Bronze II to Iron IIA (c. 1250-850 BCE): The Texts.  Edited by Lester L. Grabbe. Reviewed by Friedrich Shipper (in German) and Aren Maier in Review of Biblical Literature.
Israel's "Aramean" Origins (The Iron IA Archaeological Evidence For).  By Walter R. Mattfield http://www.bibleorigins.net
Israel's History and the History of Israel.  By Mario Liverani.  Review by Nadav Na'aman in Review of Biblical Literature.
Israeli Icon Under Fire.  A report on a controversial book that criticizes Yigael Yadin's interpretation of Masada.  From the Chronicle of Higher Education.
"The IsraeliteJudahite Struggle for the Patrimony of Ancient Israel." By Nadav Na'aman. Biblica 91 (2010): 1-23.
Jerusalem through Coins.  539 BCE to 135 CE
K. A. Kitchen and Minimalism.  By Charles David Isbell Bible and Interpretation Website
The Lab'aya Affair as seen in the el-Amarna Letters.  Lab'aya was the king of Shechem in the 14th century BCE.
The Legacy of Israel in Judah's Bible: History, Politics, and the Reinscribing of Tradition. By Daniel E. Fleming. Review by David J. Fuller in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
Mario Liverani, Oltre la Bibbia [=Beyond the Bible].  A review of Liverani's new history  of Israel by Joseph Blenkinsopp for the Social-Scientific Study of the Second Temple Period Section of SBL, San Antonio, 2004.
Mediterranean Concepts of Honour and Shame as Seen in the Depiction of the Israelite Women.  By Renata Rabichev
Mendenhall, George:  Ancient Israel's Faith and History:  An Introduction to the Bible in Context.  Review by Deborah Rooke.
Missing Priests:  The Zadokites in Tradition and History.  By Alice Hunt.  Review by Adam L. Porter in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
Die Moabiter: Geschicte und Kultur eines ostjordanischen Volkes im 1. Jahrtausend. By Erasmus Gass. Reviews by Sven Petry and Ernst Axel Knauf (both in English) in Review of Biblical Literature.
Myth and History in the Bible. By Giovanni Garbini. Review by David Bergen in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
New Seals and Inscriptions, Hebrew, Idumaean, and Cuneiform. Ed. by Meir Lubetski. Review by Lena-Sofia Tiemeyer in Review of Biblical Literature.
Northwest Semitic Inscription Archive. 
Old Testament History Outline and Menu.  By Dennis Bratcher.  Numerous articles on events after 750 BCE
On the Problem of Reconstructing Pre-Hellenistic Israel.  By N. P. Lemche.
On the Reliability of the Old Testament.  By Kenneth A. Kitchen.  Reviews by Bruce Power and Brian D. Russell in the Review of Biblical Literature.  Review by Chares David Isbell on Bible and Interpretation website and by Richard S. Hess of Denver Seminary
One God-One Cult-One Nation: Archaeological and Biblical Perspectives. Edited by Reinhard G. Kratz and Hermann Spieckermann. History (or lack of it) in the accounts of Solomon and Josiah. Review by Aren Maeir in Review of Biblical Literature
"The Origin of Biblical Israel," by Philip R. Davies. Journal of Hebrew Scriptures 5 (2005).  When did "Judah-Benjamin" take on the name "Israel." The thesis of this article is spelled out in more detail in the next item.
The Origins of Biblical Israel. By Philip R. Davies. Reviews by Thomas L. Thompson and K. L. Noll in Review of Biblical Literature.
 Philosophy and Practice in Writing a History of Ancient Israel.  By Megan Moore.  Reviews by Ernst Axel Knauf and Ralph K. Hawkins in Review of Biblical Literature.
"The Politics of Ancient Israel."   By Norman Gottwald.  Published by Bible and Interpretation website
The Politics of Ancient Israel.  By Norman K. Gottwald.  Reviewed by Lowell K. Handy.  RBL and Society of Biblical Literature.
 Prolegomena to the History of Israel by Julius Wellhausen:  Online edition
The Quest for the Historical Israel. By Israel Finkelstein and Amihai Mazar. Reviewed by Ralph K. Hawkins in Review of Biblical Literature.
The Reconstructed Chronology of the Divided Kingdom.  By M. Christine Tetley.  Reviews by Jennifer Elizabeth Singletary and Andrew Steinmann in Review of Biblical Literature
Reflection and Refraction:  Studies in Biblical Historiography in Honour of A. Graeme Auld.  Edited by Robert Rezetko, Timothy H. Lim, and W. Brian Aucher.  Review by Diana Edelman in Review of Biblical Literature
Second Temple History Chart.  By Tyler F. Williams
Studying the Ancient Israelites. A Guide to Sources and Methods. By Victor H. Matthews. Review by Bruce Power in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
Text and History:  Historiography and the Study of the Biblical Text. By Jens Bruun Kofoed.  Review by Michael Licona in Review of Biblical Literature
Through Assyria's Eyes--Israel's Relationship with Judah.  By Tammi J. Schneider in Expedition
Towards a New History of Israel  Jan Wim Wesselius.  Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
The Uttermost Part of the Earth:  A Guide to Places in the Bible.  By Richard R. Losch.  Review by Thomas J. Kraus in Review of Biblical Literature
Understanding the History of Ancient Israel. Edited by H. G. M. Williamson. Review in German by Walter Dietrich in Review of Biblical Literature.
What did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It?  What Archaeology can Tell us About the Reality of Ancient Israel.  By William G. Dever.  Reviewed by Peter James in the Palestine Exploration Quarterly.  Thompson, Thomas L.  On Reading the Bible for History.  A response to William Dever's What did the Biblical Writers Know and When did they Know It?


The Minimalism Debate

Last updated: October 30, 2011

“Minimalism, ‘Ancient Israel,’ and Anti-Semitism.”  By Philip Davies.   Denies the appropriateness of the “minimalist” label.  Published by Bible and Interpretation website
Contra Davies.  By William G. Dever.  Published by Bible and Interpretation website
Comments on the Davies-Dever Exchange.  By Norman K. Gottwald.  Published by Bible and Interpretation website
(Perhaps the) Last Comments on the Davies-Dever Exchange.  By Iain Provan.  Do the data come from the Persian period or earlier?  Published by Bible and Interpretation website
Final Comments on Minimalism.  By Philip Davies.  There is no evidence to show there was a book of Judges in the Iron Age.  Published by Bible and Interpretation website
Israel and its Neighbors Then and Now: Revisionist History and the Quest for History in the Middle East Today. By Eric M. Meyers. Bible and Interpretation Website.
  More Comments on the Davies-Dever Exchange.  By Charles David Isbell.  Can Davies provide evidence of Persian features?  Published by Bible and Interpretation website
Conservative Scholarship-Critical Scholarship: Can We Talk?  By V. Philips Long.  We should not label and dismiss one another.   Published by Bible and Interpretation website  
The Copenhagen Boomerang.  By Jim West.  Were the biblical writers attempting historical narrative or theological narrative?  Published by Bible and Interpretation website
"History" and "Writing."  By Charles David Isbell.  Did the writers of Scripture intend to write history.  Published by Bible and Interpretation website
How Post-Modernism (and W. F. Albright) Can Save us from Malarkey.  By Robert D. Miller II.  We can achieve plausible reconstructions. Published by Bible and Interpretation website
K. A. Kitchen and Minimalism.  By Charles David Isbell.  Kitchen and his opponents are both at the extremes.  Published by Bible and Interpretation website
Minimalism and the Rhetoric of Misrepresentation.  By Paul Newall

Jerusalem

Last updated: October 30, 2011

Ingeborg Rennert Center for Jerusalem Studies.  Bar-Ilan University.  History from Ancient Times Until Today

History of Jerusalem from its Beginnings to David
Jerusalem in the First Temple Period
Topography of Jerusalem

Jerusalem in the 10th/9th Centuries B.C.  By Margaret Steiner.  Bible and Interpretation website.  A small town of 2000 inhabitants.  Or was it founded in the 9th century and David and Solomon had nothing to do with it?

Matriarchs and Patriarchs     

Last updated: October 30, 2011

                     But were camels domesticated at this time?


Amarna Letters: Introduction and translations of several texts.
Discussion of the Political Situation in Palestine as reflected in the Amarna Letters
The Tomb of Beni Hasan, with Semites dressed in MB costumes
 

Exodus and Conquest

Amarna Letters. Cuneiform and translation.
Another look at the Merneptah Stele
Dating the Exodus, the Hyksos Explulsion of 1540 BCE?  By Walter Mattfeld
Early Israel.  A Look at Theories of Origin, Family Life, Domestic Cultic and Village Religion.  By Bente Groth and Lynn C. Feinberg
Egypt and the Wanderings  Richard Hooker
The Exodus from Egypt:  Reality or Illusion (Exodus 1-15).  By Pnina Galpaz-Feller.  Review by Pamela Barmash in Review of Biblical Literature.
The Exodus Traditions (Their pre-biblical backgrounds)  By Walter Mattfeld
Merneptah Stele.  By Briant G. Wood
Merenptah's "Israel," the Bible's, and Ours. By William Dever. Bible and Interpretation website.
The Moses Myth, Beyond Biblical History.  By Brian Britt.  Bible and Interpretation website.
Occupation of Canaan.  By Richard Hooker
Origins Revisited:  Refining the Theory of Conquest Before It's Too Late.  By Neil Soggio in Journal of Biblical Studies 2003.
Twelve Tribes
 

Period of the Judges

Last update: August 17, 2014

Chieftains of the Highland Clans:  A History of Israel in the Twelfth and Eleventh Centuries B.C.  By Robert D. Miller II.  Reviews by Diana Edelman and Pekka Pitkanen in Review of Biblical Literature
The Emergence of Early Israel in Historical Perspective. By Robert B. Coote and Keith W. Whitelam. Review by Aren M. Maeir in Review of Biblical Literature.
Israel in Transition: From Late Bronze II to Iron IIA (c. 1250-850). Vol I: The Archaeology. Edited by Lester L. Grabbe. Review by Trent C. Butler in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
Israel's Ethnogenesis: Settlement, Interaction, Expansion and Resistance. By Avraham Faust. Review by Kenton L. Sparks in Review of Biblical Literature.
The Sea Peoples and the Philistines on the Web  Ann Killebrew's class at Penn State
Temples and Sanctuaries from the Early Iron Age Levant: Recovery after Collapse. By William E. Mierse. Review by Jonathan S. Greer in Review of Biblical Literature.
The Twelve Tribes of Israel.  By Felix Just.
Who were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From?  By William G. Dever.  Review by Richard S. Hess of Denver Seminary, by Ralph W. Klein in Currents in Theology and Mission, by Ralph K. Hawkins in Biblical Theology Bulletin (2003); and by John Barclay Burns in Biblical Theology Bulletin (2004).

United Monarchy

Last updated: August 17, 2014


The Biblical Saga of King David. By John Van Seters. Review in German by Walter Dietrich in Review of Biblical Literature and by David B. Schreiner in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
Crime Scene Investigation:  A Text-Critical Mystery and the Strange Death of Ishbosheth.  By Keith Bodner in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
Damascus  History from antiquity until today.  Map.
David Observed: A Key in the Eyes of his Court. By Keith Bodner. Review by Ellen White in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
David Remembered: Kingship and National Identity in Ancient Israel.
By Joseph Blenkinsopp. Reviews by Walter Dietrich (in German) and Ralph K. Hawkins in Review of Biblical Literature.
David's Secret Demons:  Messiah, Murderer, Traitor, King.  By Baruch Halpern.  Reviews by Paul S. Ash and Michael Carasik (Review of Biblical Literature)
David, Solomon and Egypt.  Digest of a book by Paul Ash on Bible and Interpretation website.  Review of the book by Mark W. Chavalas in Review of Biblical Literature.
Did David and Solomon Exist. By Eric. H. Cline. Bible and Interpretation website
The Early Monarchy in Israel: The Tenth Century B. C. E. By Walter Dietrich. Review by Jeremy Hutton in Review of Biblical Literature and by Mark W. Hamilton in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
Family and Society in Ancient Israel
The Historicity of Oral Tradition and its Effect on the Biblical Traditions about David and Solomon
Internet Ancient Sourcebook on Israel from Fordham University.   Scroll down to the National Monarchy
Jerusalem Ruins Point to Biblical Palace.  Possible palace found by Eilat Mazar.
King David:  A Biography.  Digest of book by Steven L. McKenzie
King David. Center for Online Judaic Studies.
King David and King Solomon:  History or Myth?
"The Rise of Solomon in the Ancient Israelite Historiography." By Isaac Kalimi in The Figure of Solomon in Jewish, Christian and Isalamic Tradition.
"Saul as a Just Judge in Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews."  By Michael Avioz. Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
Solomon and the Daughter of Pharaoh:  Intermarriage, Conversion, and the Impurity of Women.  By Shaye J. D. Cohen.  JANES 1984-1985X
Temple Building and Temple Cult: Architecture and Cultic Paraphernalia of Temples in the Levant. 2012. Review by Jeffrey L. Morrow in Review of Biblical Literature.

Judah and Israel

Last updated: December 31, 2013


Accounts of the Campaign of Sennacherib--701 BCE  Sennacherib Prism and the Bible.
Ahab:  The Construction of a King.  By Jerome Walsh.  Review by Ralph W. Klein in Review of Biblical Literature and by Keith Bodner in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
Ancient Israel at War 853-586 BC. By Brad E. Kelle.  Review by Ernst Axel Knauf in Review of Biblical Literature.
"Archaeological Facts, Historical Speculations and the Date of the LMLK Storage Jars: A Rejoinder to David Ussishkin." By Oded Lipschits in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures. 
Assyrian Dominance 745-640 BCE.  By Dennis Bratcher
The Baal (and the Asherah?) in Seventh-Century Judah.  By Baruch Halpern
The Body Royal:  The Social Poetics of Kingship in Ancient Israel.  By Mark W. Hamilton.  Review by Markus Saur in Review of Biblical Literature.
The Campaign of Pharaoh Shoshenq I in Palestine.  By Kevin A. Wilson.  Bible and Interpretation website and review by Youri Volokhine in Review of Biblical Literature. 
Decolonizing Josiah:  Toward a Postcolonial Reading of the Deuteronomistic History.  By Uriah Y. Kim.  Review by Oded Lipschitz in Review of Biblical Literature
dConsidering the Reconsidering of LMLK Chronology. By G. M. Grena. Bible and Interpretation Website.
The End of Judah Quartz Hill School of Theology
Fact and Fiction in the Ancient Near East:  The Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, the Babylonian Chronicles, and the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible.  By Jens Bruun Kofoed.
The Fall of Nineveh Chronicle.
Found But Not Lost:  A Skeptical Note on the Document Discovered in the Temple Under Josiah.  Journal of Hebrew Scriptures. By David Henige.
Geschichten und Geschichte: Isebel [Jezebel] als literarische und historische Gestalt. By Dagmar Pruin. Review by Claudia D. Bergmann in Review of Biblical Literature.
Good Kings and Bad Kings.  Edited by Lester L. Grabbe.  Reviews by John Engle and Eckart Otto in Review of Biblical Literature.
Hezekiah and the Assyrian Spies: Reconstruction of the Neo-Assyrian Intelligence Services and its Significance for 2 Kings 18-19. By Peter Dubovsky. Review by Aren M. Maeir in Review of Biblical Literature.
Hezekiah in History and Tradition. By Robb Andrew Young. Review by Ibolya Balla in Review of Biblical Literature.
Hezekiah vs. Sennacherib.  The Untold Rest of the Story from the Assyrian Royal Archives
"History in the Eye of the Beholder? Social Location and Allegations o Racial/Colonial Biases in Reconstructions of Sennacherib's Invasion of Judah." By Paul S. Evans. Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
Iron Age IIB:  The Assyrian Menace  Christian Leadership Center
Iron Age IIC:  The Independent State of Judah
Iron Age IIC:  The Neo-Babylonian Empire and the Fall of Judah
Israel and the Arameans.  Quartz Hill School of Theology
The Jehoash Inscription:  An Evaluative Summary.  By Stuart A. Irvine and Charles David Isbell.  Bible and Interpretation website.
Archaeometric Evidence for the Authenticity of the Jehoash Inscription. By A. Rosenfeld and S. Ilani. Bible and Interpretation Website
The Jehoash Inscription:  Transcription and Bibliography.  By Giuseppe Regalzi.
Jehoiakim Slept with his Fathers...(2 Kgs 24:6)...Did He?  Journal of Hebrew Scriptures. By Oded Lipschitz.  Click on Volume 4 to find this article.
Jeremiah, Zedekiah, and the Fall of Jerusalem. By Mark Roncace.  Reviews by Lester L. Grabbe and Bob Becking in Review of Biblical Literature.
Jeremiah and the Ammonite Alliance. By Russell Hobson. Suggests motivation for the slaughter of 70 people by Ishmael at Mizpah.
King Josiah of Judah:  The Lost Messiah of Israel.  By Marvin A. Sweeney.  Review by Steven L. McKenzie in Review of Biblical Literature.
Die Kultreform Josias. By Michael Pietsch. Review in English by Martin Leuenberger in Review of Biblical Literature.
The Legacy of Israel in Judah's Bible: History, Politics, and the Reinscribing of Tradition. By Daniel E. Fleming. Reviews by Yitzhaq Feder and Frank H. Polak in Review of Biblical Literature
Like a Bird in a Cage:  The Invasion of Sennacherib in 701 BCE.  Review by Ralph W. Klein in Currents in Theology and Mission (2005).
Jeroboam and the Division of the Kingdom:  Mapping Contrasting Biblical Accounts.  By Amos Frisch. JANES 2000.
 

The Jezebel Seal

  Seals of Jezebel and other Women of Authority.  By Marjo C. A. Korpel.  Journal for Semititics 15 (2006) 349-71.
 

 


Mesha Stela/Moabite Stone  Text and Commentary
A New Look at the Inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III.  By Gershon Galil
A Passing Power:  an Examination of the Sources for the History of Aram-Damascus in the Second Half of the Ninth Century.  By Sigurthur Hafthoreson.  Review by Paul Sanders in Review of Biblical Literature.
A Reconstruction of Moabite-Israelite History.  By Gary Rendsburg.  JANES 1981
Sennacherib's Campaign to Judah.  By William R. Gallagher.  Review by J. J. M. Roberts in Review of Biblical Literature.
Shalmaneser III and the Levantine States:  The "Damascus Coalition Rebellion."    By A Kirk Grayson.  Journal of Hebrew Scriptures 5/4 (2004).
Siloam Tunnel Inscription.  Translation Notes by Ralph W. Klein
The "Sin" of Jeroboam. By Ralph W. Klein
The Tel Dan Inscription:  A Reappraisal and a New Interpretation.  By George Athas.  Highly critical reviews by Nadav Na'aman and William Schniedewind from the Review of Biblical Literature.  Much more positive review by Daniel Miller in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
Two Assyrian Campaigns by Sennacherib.  By J. Goldberg.  Biblica 80 (1999):360-390.
The Two Kingdoms:  920-597 BCE.  By Richard Hooker
Yabneh Yam Ostracon.  Vocalization and Translation Notes by Ralph W. Klein
Zimri--Briefly, Brightly King:  The Strange Story of Israel's Shortest-Reigning King, 1 Kgs 16,8-20.  By Robin Gallaher Branch.  SBL Forum, June, 2007.

New Jehoash Inscription:  A Forgery?

An Alternative Interpretation of the stone Tablet with Ancient Hebrew Inscription attributed to Jehoash King of Judah.  By Yuval Goren.  Bible and Interpretation website.
Archaeometric Evidence for the Authenticity of the Jehoash Inscription. By A. Rosenfeld and S. Ilani. Bible and Interpretation Website
  The Jehoash Inscription. By Victor Avigdor Hurowitz. Bible and Interpretation Website.
The Jehoash Inscription:  An Evaluative Summary.  By Stuart A. Irvine and Charles David Isbell.  Bible and Interpretation website.
The Jehoash Inscription:  Transcription and Bibliography.  By Giuseppe Regalzi.
"Opinion Concerning the Authenticity of the Yehoash Inscription and the Ossuary of 'Ya'qob the son of Yosef Brother of Yeshua.'"  By Shmeul Ahituv from Bible and Interpretation Website.
Opinion on the inscription known as The "Yehoash Inscription. By Hagai Misgav. Bible and Interpretation Website.
Report on the Temple Tablet.  By Rochelle I. Altman.  Bible and Interpretation website. 

Exile Last updated June 16, 2014

Exile and Restoration Revisited: Essays on the Babylonian and Persian Periods in Memory of Peter R. Ackroyd. Edited by Gary N. Knoppers and Lester L. Grabbe, with Deirdre N. Fulton. Review by Lena-Sofia Tiemeyer in Review of Biblical Literature.
The Exile from a Bird's Eye View. By Bob Becking. Bible and Interpretation website.
Israel in Exile:  The History and Literature of the Sixth Century B. C. C.  By Rainer Albertz.  Review by Lester L. Grabbe in Review of Biblical Literature
Judah and the Judeans in the Neo-Babylonian Period.  Ed. Oded Lipschits and Joseph Blenkinsopp, 2003.  Review by  Mark W. Chavalas in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures and by Bob Becking, Erhard Gerstenberger, and John Kessler  in Review of Biblical Literature.
Judah in the Neo-Babylonian Period: The Archaeology of Desolation. By Avraham Faust. Reviews by Gert T. Prinsloo and Ulrich Berges (in German) in Review of Biblical Literature.
The Exile  By Richard Hooker
The Fall and Rise of Jerusalem:  Judah under Babylonian Rule.  By Oded Lipschits.  Reviews by Rainer Albertz, Diana Edelman, and Deirdre Fulton in Review of Biblical Literature.  Also In Conversation with Oded Lipschits.  Ed. David Vanderhooft in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures and by Ken Ristau in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures
The Land Lay Desolate:  Conquest and Restoration in the Ancient Near East.  By Lisbeth Fried,  pp. 21-54 in Judah and Judeans in the Neo-Babylonian Period (2003).
When was the First Temple Destroyed according to the Bible?  By Michael Avioz.  Biblica 84 (2003):562-565.

Post-exile

Last updated: June 21, 2014

Approaching Yehud: New Approaches to the Study of the Persian Period. Ed. Jon L. Berquist. Reviews by Armin Siedlecki and Ernst Axel Knauf in Review of Biblical Literature.
After the Exile  By Richard Hooker
The `Am Ha'aretz in Ezra 4:4 and Persian Imperial Administration.  By Lisbeth Fried, pp. 123-145 in Judah and Judeans in the Persian Period 2006.
Cyrus Cylinder  Text of this important decree.
Cyrus Prism and decrees of Cyrus in the Old Testament
Ehud Ben Zvi Links to the Second Temple Period
Exclusive Inclusivity: Identity Conflicts between the Exiles and the People who Remained (6th-5th centuries BCE). By Dalit Rom-Shiloni. Review by Michael A. Lyons in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
From Joshua to Caiaphas:  High Priests after the Exile.  Review by Michael Tilly (German) in Review of Biblical Literature
From Judah to Judea: Socio-economic Structures and Processes in the Persian Period. By Johannes Unsok Ro. Review by Jason M. Silverman in Review of Biblical Literature.
The History of the Second Temple Period.  By Paolo Sacchi.  Review by Kenneth G. Stenstrup and by Gerbern S. Oegema in Review of Biblical Literature.
  Into his Own:  Perspective on the World of Jesus. Mahlon H. Smith
Israel in the Persian Period: The Fifth and Fourth Centuries B.C.E. By Erhard S. Gerstenberger. Review by John Engle and by Jason Silverman in Review of Biblical Literature.
Jewish Identity and Politics between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals. Edited by Benedikt Eckhardt. Review by Joshua Schwartz in Review of Biblical Literature.
Judah and the Judeans in the Achaemenid Period: Negotiating Identity in an International Context. Edited by Oded Lipschits, Gary N. Knoppers, and Manfred Oeming. Review by Frank H. Polak in Review of Biblical Literature.
Judah and the Judeans in the Persian Period.  Ed. by Oded Lipschits and Manfred Oeming.  Review by Erhard S. Gerstenberger in Review of Biblical Literature and by Ken Ristau in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
Judah between East and West: The Transition from Persian to Greek Rule (ca. 400-200 BCE). Edited by Lester L. Grabbe and Oded Lipschits. Review by Joshua Schwartz in Review of Biblical Literature.
Judaic Religion in the Second Temple Period:  Belief and Practice from the Exile to Yavneh.  By Lester L. Grabbe.  Review by James C. VanderKam in Review of Biblical Literature.
Das Judentum im Zeitalter des Zweiten Tempels.  By Reinhard Gregor Kratz.  Review by Lester L. Grabbe in Review of Biblical Literature.
Mt. Gerizim and Mt. Zion:  A Study in the Early History of the Samaritans and Jews.  By Gary N. Knoppers. 2004 CSBS Presidential Address
The Nabateans Oriented toward tourism.
The Origins of the 'Second Temple':  Persian Imperial Policy and the Rebuilding of Jerusalem.  By Diana Edelman.  Review by Albert L. A. Hogeterp in Review of Biblical Literature and by Mark Boda in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
Persian Period and the Judean Restoration:  From Zerubbabel to Nehemiah  Eric M. Meyers
The Persian Period and the Origins of Israel: Beyond the "Myths."  By Efrain Velazquez II. Bible and Interpretation Website
Persian Period Finds from Jerusalem: Facts and Interpretations. By Oded Lipschits. Journal of Hebrew Scriptures 9, Article 20.
Persian Period Jerusalem and Yehud: A Rejoinder. By Israel Finkelstein in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures
Petition to Authorize Temple Reconstruction at Elephantine.
Post-exilic Rulers over Palestine  By Steve Wiggins
The Priest and the Great King:  Temple-Palace Relations in the Persian Empire.  By Lisbeth S. Fried.  Review by Kenneth A. Ristau in Review of Biblical Literature and by Jeremiah Cataldo in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
Redating the Building of the 'Second' Temple.  By Diana Edelman.  Bible and Interpretation website.  Dates the second temple to the reign of Artaxerxes I.
Remembering and Forgetting in Early Second Temple Judaism. Edited by Ehud Ben Zvi and Christoph Levin. Review by A. J. Culp in Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.
Rulers of Palestine from Alexander to Herod the Great   By Dennis Bratcher
Second Temple Synagogues. By Donald D. Binder
Studies in Persian Period History and Historiography.  By H. G. M. Williamson.  Review by Diana Edelman in Review of Biblical Literature.
Temple Restoration in Early Achaemenid Judah.  By Peter Ross Bedford.  Review by Bruce A. Power in Review of Biblical Literature.
"An Updated Chronology of the Reigns of Phoenician Kings during the Persian Period."  By J. Elayi.  Trans 32 (2007).
Writing a History of Yehud in the Persian Period:  Creating Understanding.  By Diana Edelman for Social-Scientific Studies of the Second Temple Period Section, SBL, San Antonio, 2004
The Yehud Stamp Impressions: A Corpus of Inscribed Impressions from the Persian and Hellenistic Periods in Judah. Edited by Oded Lipschits and David S. Vanderhooft. Review by Aren Maier in Review of Biblical Literature.

 

Coins

Biblical Cities and Coins  By Ferrell Jenkins.
Coins of Pontius Pilate.  Fascinating site by Jean-Philippe Fontanille.
Handbook of Biblical Numismatics
Jerusalem through Coins.

Elephantine Colony

Elephantine Island.  Tourism related.
Elephantine und Assuan.  Lots of good cross references.
Marriage and Divorce Documents from Elephantine.
Pictures of Papyri from Berlin and Brooklyn.  West Semitic Research Project
Satet Temple at Elephantine.
 

 

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great on the Web.  Comprehensive guide to more than 1,000 sites.
Alexander the Great: Study Guide
The Jews and Hellenization:  Hengel and his Critics.  By Lester L. Grabbe.
Yavan in the House of Shem:  Greeks and Jews 332-63 BCE

 


Samaritans

Samaria and the Samaritans.  Large number of articles and links on this city and the Samaritan sect.
 

Ptolemies and Seleucids

The House of Ptolemy
The House of Seleucus
The Samaritan in the Hasmonean Period.  By Lester L. Grabbe

Josephus

Antiquities of the Jews  From the Perseus Project
Antiquities of the Jews:  Book XI
Antiquities of the Jews:  Book XII
Antiquities of the Jews:  Book XIII




 

Report errors or non-working links to rklein@lstc.edu.