The Divided Kingdom

Israel:  Ahaziah to the End
Judah:  Jehoram to Hezekiah

852-late 8th c BCE








Ahaziah 852-851 1 Kgs 22:51-2 Kgs 1:18 fell to his death

Ascension of Elijah 2 Kgs 2:1-25

Amman Citadel Inscription (Ammonite) 9c COS 2.24; p. 139 The god Milcom speaks about a temple or the citadel itself
Amman Citadel

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Jehoshaphat fights Moab with Joram of Northern Kingdom  2 Kings 3

Jehoram--(married to Athaliah, daughter of Ahab)  851-843/42 2Kgs 8:16-24//2 Chr 21:2-20

Edom (SE) and Libnah (W) gained their independence 2 Kgs 8:20-22//2 Chr 21:8-10

Joram  851-842/41 2 Kgs 3:1-8:15

Elisha 2 Kgs 3:13-8:15

Elohist source in the Pentateuch (date contested)


Joram and Jezebel were  killed by Jehu

Bir-Hadad II of Damascus 844-842 (killed by Hazael)

Hazael of Damascus 844-800. Mentioned on ivory piece from Nimrud and on Zakkur stela (see below).

Storm god on ivory from Arslan Tash



Ahaziah killed by Jehu 843/42-
842/41 2 Kgs 8:25-9:29//Chr 22:1-22:9

Jehu 842/41-815/14 2 Kgs 9:1-10:36

Tel Dan Inscription

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More info

Tel Dan inscription [of Hazael?] mentions his killing of [Jeho]ram son of [Ahab] king of Israel and [Ahaziah] son of [Jehoram ki]ng of the House of David COS 2.39; pp.  161-162. In 2 Kings 9-10 Jehu kills these two kings




Athaliah 842/41-835 2 Kgs 11:1-20//2 Chr 22:10-23:21

kills many members of royal household; deposed and killed in bloody coup

Tribute of Jehu to Shalmaneser III 841

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

Black Obelisk 828-827 BCE COS 2.113F,  pp. 269-270 Click here for text.  ANET 278-281

Jehu kneels before Shalmaneser III:

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"Jehu the son of Omri"



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Marduk-zakir-shumi of Babylon (right) and Shalmaneser III (left) enact a peace pact

Kurba'il Statue-COS 2.113E, p.  268 839-838 mentions attack on Hazael and  tribute of Jehu the man of Bit Humri.  Click here for text.

Calah Bulls COS 2.113C, pp. 266-267 mention Jehu.  Click here for text.

Marble slab COS 2.113D, pp. 267-268 mentions Jehu.  Click here for text

Sheshonq III 825-773 (837-798)

Sheshong IV  798-785

Pami 785-778

Sheshonq V

23. Dynasty 818-715

Pedubastis I Theban king 818-793

Iuput I 804-783 Theban king

Joash 842/1-802/1
2 Kgs 11:21-12:21//2 Chr 24:1-27 (hidden by Jehosheba, sister of Ahaziah; her husband [?] Jehoiada put Joash on the throne); Joash was assassinated by his servants

Ashyahu inscription: Just as Ashyahu (Joash) commanded you to give by the hand of Zechariah silver of Tarshish to the House of Yahweh. Three sheqels. 9-7c, COS 2.50; pp.  174-175

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Ashyahu Inscription
According to a 2005 Israeli indictment, this inscription is a forgery.  It has previously been authenticated by some of the world's premier epigraphers.  Some date it to the time of Josiah.

Joash paid tribute to Hazael after he had conquered Gath 2 Kgs 12:17-18

New Joash Inscription (forgery?)

Click thumbnail for bigger image

...son of Ahaziah.  And I made the land and in the desert and in all the cities of Judah to make the silver of the holy things much to acquire hewn stone and cypresses and bronze of Edom to do the work in faithfulness and I worked on the damage to the temple and the walls round about and the side chambers and the lattices and the staircases and the ledges and the doors and this day will be a statute because the work prospered.  May YHWH ordain blessing for his people.  Translation by Peter Williams of Tyndale House, Cambridge

Tell Fekheriye inscription, Hadad-Yith`i, late 9c, COS 2.34; pp.  153-154 Assyrian and Aramaic writing.



Hazael Booty Inscriptions, 2nd half of 9c, COS 2.40; pp.  162-163 The god Hadad gave Hazael success

Melqart Inscription 9c COS 2.33; pp.  152-153 Bir-hadad, son of Atarhamek, probably not from Damascus but from Arpad; made a vow to Melqart (god of Tyre).  Late 9th, early 8th century

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Shamshi-Adad V 823-811 married to Semiramis ANEP 442
4 campaigns against Babylon

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Shamshi-Adad V




 Marduk-balassu-iqbi, king of Babylon 818-813 taken to Nineveh and flayed by Shamshi-Adad V

Baba-aha-iddina 812 Babylonian king



Melqart Inscription



Jehoahaz 819-804/3 2 Kgs 13:1-9
Samaria besieged by Aram






Mortuary stele of KTMW
from Zincirli


Kilamuwa Inscription, COS 2.30; pp.  147-148 ca. 830-820 BCE.  ANET 500-501, 654-655
Kilamuwa, from state of Sam'al (south-central Turkey), claims to surpass his predecessors; paid king of Assyria to drive off another king.

Kilamuwa (Kulamuwa) inscription

Adad-Nirari III 810-783; his mother was Semiramis

ANEP 444
COS 2.114;  pp.  272-277

Saba'a Stela COS 2.114 E, pp. 274-275 ANET 282 797 or later. Marched to Hatti and Damascus

Assyrian Eponym Canon--805-732:  COS 1.136; pp. 465-466

Sheshonq VI Theban king  783-777

Osorkon III Theban king 777-749

Osorkon III

25. Dynasty (Napatans--
Kushites) 780-656

Alara 780-760

Pimay (Pimiu) 773-767

Amaziah assassinated at Lachish 805/04-776/75 2 Kgs 14:1-20//2 Chr 25:1-28


defeats Edom; defeated and taken captive by Jehoash





Jehoash 805-790 
2 Kgs 13:10-25

Tribute of Jehoash the Samarian to Adad-nirari III 796

Defeats Arameans and attacks Jerusalem; captured Amaziah

Elisha dies
2 Kgs 13:14-21 

Kuntillet `Ajrud: I [Joash] bless you by Yahweh of Samaria and by his "asherah."

inscription found in n. e.  Sinai Pithos A
COS 2.47A, p. 171 9/8 c.

       Pithos B

COS 2.47B, 171-172

Ben-Hadad III followed Hazael (2 Kgs 13:3-5--the Lord provided a deliver = Adad-nirari III); defeated three times by Jehoash; recovered towns that Jehoahaz had lost to the Arameans 2 Kgs 13:25.

Zakkur king of Hamath and Luaš, 800 BCE,  ANET 501-502, 655-656; COS 2.35; p.  155 Baal-shamayn (who made me king over Hadrach) spoke to me through seers and diviners (Do not be afraid! I made you king and I will stand with you); also refers to iar Hadad son of Hazael = Ben Hadad 2 Kgs 13:3.

Zakkur stela


Adad-Nirari III defeated Hazael's son Ben-Hadad; received tribute from Jehoash of Israel in 796

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Adad-Nirari from Tell Rimah temple

Tell Al Rimah Stela. Mentions Joash the Samarian and "mari" = Ben-Hadad III, son of Hazael. Click here for text. COS 2.114F, pp. 275-276

Calah Orthostat Slab.  Click here for text.  COS 2.114G, pp. 276-277; ANET 281-282 mentions defeat and taxatiion of the land of Humri (Israel)


Defeated Arameans in 802

Takelot III (23) 754-734


Kashta (25) 760-747

  The Late Period 25th - 30th Dynasties

25. Dynasty  -- Kushite (Nubian) kings from Sudan rule as pharaohs at Memphis

Piye (Piankhy-Piye) 747-716 great campaign to achieve domination in Nile valley
Victory Stela of King Piye COS 2.7, pp. 42-51

Amun enthroned; Piankhi standing


 (Peftjauawybast) 747-716 Nubian dynasty

Azariah/Uzziah 788/87-736/35 2 Kgs 14:21-22; 15:1-7//2 Chr 26:1-23

Defeated Philistines and Arab tribes


Abiyaw the servant of Uzziah

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Shebnaiah the servant of Uzziah

















Uzziah fought with Tiglath-pileser III in 743 ANET 282-283


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"Hither were brought the bones of Uzziah king of Judah.  Do not open."  Dates from time long after Uzziah


Jotham 758/57-742/41 2 Kgs 15:32-38//2 Chr 27:1-9

Inscribed "To Jotham"
found at Tell el-Khefeileh

Jeroboam II 790-750/49 2 Kgs 14:23-29

Belonging to Shema the servant of Jeroboam (II)

Samaria Ostraca 8 c (more than 100) ANET 321

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An ostracon from Samaria


Balaam Inscription from Tell Deir 'Alla
800 BCE COS 2.27, pp. 140-145  vision of divine assembly

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1 Chr 5:17 census of Transjordan

Samaria ivories

Amos ca. 760

Hosea ca. 750-725

Zechariah 750/49 2 Kgs 15:8-12
(6 months; assassinated by Shallum; end of Jehu dynasty)

Shallum 749 2 Kgs 15:13-15 (one month; assassinated by Menahem)



Menahem 749-38  2 Kgs 15:16-23

Tribute of Menahem the Samarian to Tiglath-pileser III 740, 738 2 Kgs 15:19 ANET, 283

Aramaean regions in 9-8c



















Tiglath-pileser III receives homage

Tiglath-pileser III

Assyrian troops
attack a city

Assyrian campaigns
in 9-8 centuries

Sefire Treaty between Barga'yah, king of KTK and Mati-ilu, king of Arpad mid 8 c.  Mati-ilu had earlier made treaty with Ashur-Nirari V  ANET 503-504, 659-661; COS 2.82; pp.  213-217

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Shalmaneser IV Assyrian king 783-773 COS 2.116; pp.  283-284 Refers to campaign of Šamši-ilu, commander-in-chief,  against Hadiyani of Damascus

Šamši-ilu conducts victorious campaign against Argishtu, king of Urargtu COS 2.115A, p. 278

Ashur-Dan III 772-755
A solar eclipse took place on June 15, 763, in the eponymy of Bur-Sagala--crucial for chronological calculations

Babylon:  Eriba-Marduk 770
Nabu-shuma-ishkun, king of Babylon  760-748 

Ashur-Nirari V 754-745 -treaty with Mati-ilu, who appears in Sefire Treaty

 Nabu-nasir (Nabonassar), king of Babylon 747-734
Neo-Babylonian Chronicle 1














Tiglath-pileser III (Pul) Assyrian king 745-27 
ANET 282-284; ANEP 366, 445; COS 2.117A-117G; pp.  284-292

Campaign against Hamath, Damascus, Tyre, Byblos, and Samaria 738

Click here for text of his inscriptions mentioning Israel

Pulu was his throne name when he became king of Babylon in 729

Osorkon IV (= So? = Kitchen) 730-15 sent commander-
in-chief to assist Gaza against Sargon in 720

Prenomen of Osorkon IV


Rudamun (23) 734-731

Iuput II (23) 731-720

24. Dynasty at Sais in western delta 727-715
Tefnakhte 727-720 (= "So" in 2 Kgs 17:4)

Ahaz 742/41-726 2 Kgs 16:1-20//2 Chr 28:1-27

Belonging to Ahaz,  [son of] Jehotham, king of Judah

Belonging to Ushna, the servant of Ahaz


Ahaz (Jehoahaz the Judean) sends tribute to Tiglath-pileser III (first Judean king mentioned in Assyrian Annals; cf. Tell Dan and Ashyahu Inscriptions) ANET 282

Pekahiah 738-736 son of Menahem 2 Kgs 15:23-26; assassinated by Pekah

Pekah 750?-732/31 2 Kgs 15:27-31
Syro-Ephraimite War (allied with Rezin)

deposed by Tiglath-pileser III "They overthrew their king Pekah and I (Tiglath-pileser) set Hoshea as king over them" and assassinated by Hoshea.

Hanunu, king of Gaza, fled to Egypt in 734.




Drawing of Bar-rakib





Hoshea 732/31-722 2 Kgs 17:1-6 ANET 284 (confirmed on throne by Tiglath-pileser III)
refused to pay tribute to Shalmaneser V
Belonging to Abdi the servant of Hoshea.

Zinjirli = Sam'al off NE coast of Mediterranean Sea

Panammu I = Hadad Inscription, mid 8c, COS 2.36; pp.  156-158

Rezin, (Rakhianu) king of Damascus; killed by Tiglath-pileser III 2 Kgs 16:9

Panammu II (died 735-32) Inscription COS 2.37; pp. 158-161 (mentions Tiglath-pileser III and benefits of serving Assyrian king).  Died in battle supporting Tigalath-pileser III

Barrakib, son of Panammu II 733-732 COS 2.38, pp. 160-161 ANET 501, 655; ANEP 281, 460;

Rakib.jpg (167580 bytes)
Picture of Bar-rakib above, inscription below

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Panammu II died fighting for Tiglath-Pileser III





Memorial stele of KTMW from Zincirli



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Tiglath-pileser's campaigns

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Tiglath-pileser's deportations

Campaign against Tyre and Gaza 734

Iran Stele
Mentions Menahem King of Israel

Kalah Palace Summary Inscription


Campaign against Tyre, Damascus (Rezin), and Israel (Pekah) 733

Babylon:  Nabu-nadin-zeri 733-732

Nabu-shuma-ukin II 732 assassinated his predecessor; ruled one month

Damascus (Hazael) captured; Israel loses Gilead, Galilee, and Dor, which became Assyrian provinces 732

Nabu-mukin-zeri 731-729 deposed his predecessor.  At the end of his reign Tiglath-pileser III ascended the throne of Babylon.  Neo-Babylonian Chronicle 1







Osorkon IV supported Gaza revolt 720

Egyptians defeated at Raphia

Sent tribute to Sargon II


Hezekiah 726-697/96 2 Kgs 18:1-20:21//2 Chr 29:1-32:33

Hezekiah (Israeli data on this king)

Hezekiah's seal

HEZSEAL.JPG (208519 bytes)

Belonging to Hezekiah, [son of] A[haz], king of Judah

Khirbet el-Qom inscription COS 2.52; p.  179 Blessed was Uriyahu, O Yahweh, and from his enemies, by his asherah, he saved him.

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Ashdod revolt, under Aziru,  supported by Judah, opposed by Isaiah (chap 20)

Defense wall in Jerusalem

lamelek jar handle with mention of "Mamshit." Others of 2,000 examples refer to Hebron, Ziph, and Sokoh

Beersheba altar dismantled in Hezekiah's reform

"Belonging to the temple of Yahweh, holy to the priests"--probably a forgery

Creator of the Earth Ostracon; COS 2.49, 174

Drawing of Hezekiah (?) from Ramat Rachel



Conquest of Samaria 722

Second attack on Samaria and exile of inhabitants 720 ANET 284-285

27,290 captured



Court Order from Samaria COS 3.122; pp.  270-271 repayment of a loan for work animals--shows mixed population of Samaria.  2 Kgs 17:24, 29-30



Ishtar Seal from Shechem
dating destruction to 724


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Sargon II besieges Ekron

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Sargon II

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Sargon, followed by an attendant, before Ashur

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Sargon (L) Sennacherib (R)

Sargon Stela Ashdod

Sargon and vizier

Sargon II

Nimrud Inscription:  "I
brought into Samaria
people from countries
conquered by my hands."


Iaubi'di, king of Hamath, revolted vs. Sargon II in 720

711  Assyria crushed rebellion in Ashdod led by Aziru, Akhimetu, and Yamani (possible Judean involvement; ANET 287)

Shalmaneser V 726-722 Assyrian king

Babylonian Chronicle COS 1.137; pp.  467-468; ANET 30-307  For text of mention of Samaria click here.

Incirli Stela website


Sargon II 722-705 ANET 284-287
"I led away as prisoners 27,290 inhabitants of [the town of the Samarians]."  Called "the conqueror of Samaria and all the land of Beth Omri."

Ascension of Sargon mentioned in Babylonian Chronicle

ANEP 446; 
Coronation Hymn COS 1.141; pp.  472-473
COS 2.118A-118J; pp.  293-300 Click here for the text of his inscriptions mentioning Israel and Judah ("conqueror of Judah which is far away")

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Sargon stela from

deposed "usurper of Samaria and the whole land of the house of Omri."  Bull Inscription

714 pillaged sanctuaries of Urartu

 Maduk-apla-iddina II 721-710 (Merodach-baladan), king of Babylon ANEP 454 2 Kgs 20:12-19; Isaiah 39

Marduka.jpg (238532 bytes)
Merodach-Baladan and his smaller vassal

Revolt of Syria, Samaria, and Gaza suppressed; defeat of Egyptians at Raphia 720

710 Assyria under Sargon II captured Babylon and forced Merodach Baladan II into exile  Neo-Babylonian Chronicle 1

New capital at Dur Sharrukin (Khorsabad); Sennacherib moved capital to Nineveh

Overall plan