Third Millennium BCE

Last updated: March 30, 2014

Egypt  The Levant Mesopotamia
Dynasty 0

Narmer (Baleful catfish) Late pre-dynastic king. On palette wears crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Narmer Palette (reverse)

reverse and obverse

Early Dynastic Period

1. Dynasty 3100-2890 seven rulers. King Meni (Menes)  united upper and lower Egypt

Aha. Probably the first king of Egypt. Perhaps the same as Menes.


2.  Dynasty 2890-2686 nine rulers


Iku-Shamagan, king of Mari 3000 BCE

Cultic stela from Mari ca. 3000 BCE








Early Dynastic I 2900-2700
Early Dynastic II 2700-2600


Old Kingdom (3rd-8th dynasties)

3. Dynasty 2647-2573
Zanakht 2647-2628
Netjerirykhet (Djoser) 2628-2609. Imhotep was the architect of the Step Pyramid

Step Pyramid

Famine Stela--Djoser grants to temple of Khnum a
share of revenue.  Dates to Ptolemaic period

Sekhemkhet 2609-2603
Khaba 2603-2597
Qahedjet 2597-2573

4. Dynasty 2573-2454

Snofru or Snefru 2573-2549.

Rahotep and Nofret from Snofru's pyramid

Khufu (Cheops) 2549-2526.

Pyramids of Cheops, Chephren, and Mycerinus at Giza


Radjedef 2525-2518 first to be called "Son of Re"
Khephren or Khapre (Chephren) 2518-2493.


Sphinx with head of Khephren

Khenka or Wehemka 2493-2488
Menkaure (Mycerinus) 2488-2460

Shepseskaf 2460-2456


Thamphthis 2456-2454



Early Dynastic III 2600-2350

Royal Tombs of Ur 2600

Ur Standard:  Military victory feast


Ur Lyre and Ur Ram











First Dynasty of Lagash

Ur-Nanshe ca. 2500












Ebih Il, official in Mari

5. Dynasty 2454-2311
Userkaf 2454-2447
Sahure 2447-2435
Neferirkare 2435-2425
Shepseskare 2425-2418
Raneferef 2418-2408
Neuserre 2408-2377
Menkauhor 2377-2369
Izezi 2369-2341
Unas 2341-2311


Palermo Stone
Lists kings down to 5th dynasty

Pyramid texts


Model of round house from Mari 2400 BCE

Eannatum 2454-2425

Eannatum's victory over Umma, Ur, Uruk, and Kish

Uru-inimgina (Urukagina) known for social reforms

Lugalzagesi, Ensi of Umma 2360-2335

Ishqi-Mari, king of Mari

6. Dynasty 2311-2140
Teti 2311-2281
Pepy I 2280-2243

Pepi I

Merenre I 2242-2237

Merenre I

Pepy II 2236-2143

Pepy II

Merenre II 2142-2141
Neitiqert (queen) 2141-2140















7. Dynasty 2140-2134


Ebla Archives mid 24th century

Dynasty of Akkad 

Babylonian Map 2360-2150
The top of the map is east. The circle in the lower left may be the city of Ebla.

Sargon I 2334-2279 unified Sumer and Akkad

Legend or Autobiography of Sargon (his infancy resembles that of Moses) COS 1.133, p. 461; ANET 119

Rimush 2278-2270

Manishtushu 2269-2255

Naram-Sin 2254-2218 son of Manishtushu and grandson of Sargon. Destroyed Ebla.

Curse of Agade-Because of Naram-Sin's sacking of Nippur, the gods brought Gutians as punishment

Naram-Sin's victory over the Gutians; Naram-Sin (earlier thought to be Sargon)

Shar-kali-sharra 2217-2193

Gutian invasions

8. Dynasty 2134-2124   Gutians
First Intermediate Period:  Dynasties 9-11

9. and 10. Dynasties (Heracleopolitan) 2123-2040

    Second Dynasty of Lagash

Gudea of Lagash 2141-2122
The Cylinders of Gudea COS 2.155, pp. 417-433; ANET 268-269

Gudea of Lagash

Ur-Ningirsu of Lagash 2122-2118


Utuhegal of Uruk 2133-2113 drove Gutians from Babylon

11. Dynasty (Theban) 2123-2040
Mentuhotpe I and Inyotef I 2124-2107
Inyotef II 2107-2058
Inyotef III 2058-2050
Mentuhotpe II (before unification) 2050-2040

Mentuhotpe II


  Third Dynasty of Ur 2112-2004

Ur-Nammu 2112-2095 "king of Sumer and Akkad"; built Ziggurat at Ur.  The Laws of Ur-Nammu COS 2.153, pp. 408-410; ANET 523-525 (Some ascribe these to Shulgi)

Ur-Nammu cylinder seal

Ur-Nammu before Shamash

Shulgi 2094-2047
first law code (see under Ur-Nammu)

Amar-Sin 2046-2038

Shu-Sin 2037-2029 threatened by Amorites and erected a wall against them

Ibbi-Sin 2028-2004 Lament over the fall of Ur

Amorite invasions


Naplanum 2025-2005, Larsa

Ishbi-Erra 2017-1985. Isin